Arnold J. Toynbee

  • Religion is life
  • “Religion is one of the indispensable human faculties. It suffices to say that lacking religion pushes a human being to a state of spiritual despondency. It drives him to seek spiritual consolation from those who possess nothing of that sort.”

  • Teacher of Humanity
  • “The conduct of the Arab prophet captivated the hearts of his followers, and for them his character rose to the highest degree. They believed in his message which made them receptive to what was revealed to him. Moreover, his actions, as recorded by the traditions of his sayings and acts, were a source of law not limited to the organization of the life of the Muslim group alone, but they also arranged the relations between the Muslim conquerors and the non-Muslims they ruled.”

  • The message of Muhammad’s prophet-hood
  • “Muhammad devoted his life to achieve his mission of ensuring these two phenomena in the social Arab environment, namely: oneness as an idea in the religion, and law and order in the legislative rulings. This really happened thanks to the comprehensive Islamic system, which included both oneness and executive authority between its folds, and thanks to the fact that Islam became a super driving force that transferred the Arabs from a nation of ignorance to a civilized nation.”

  • The conquered captivated the conquerors
  • “The conquered world of Islam captivated her savage conquerors (the Crusaders) and introduced the arts of civilization into the rustic life of Latin Christendom. In certain fields of activity, such as architecture, this Islamic influence pervaded the entire western world in its so-called ‘mediaeval’ age; and as for the two territories of Sicily and Andalusia, the influence of the Arab Islamic empire on the new local Crusader states there was naturally even wider and deeper.”